The overall goal is to use in vivo magnetic resonance diffusion imaging (dMRI) to study white matter (WM) pathology in schizophrenia (SZ). Measurement of microstructural WM pathology has the potential to have a huge impact on new SZ treatment strategies (anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs promoting cell regeneration, myelin protective medication, etc.) The previous project cycle was focused on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) models, and established that there are subtle abnormalities in the WM in SZ. In this new proposal we plan to develop more sensitive probes of tissue microstructure using advanced dMRI scanning and analysis techniques, to help explore the nature of the subtle abnormalities and pinpoint specific micro- pathology. The proposed advances in dMRI include development of methods for multiple-shell imaging to enable measurement of the full 3D diffusion function (the propagator), and implementation of the recently developed double pulsed field gradient (double-PFG) sequence on a clinical scanner. These technologies will increase the scan time but will provide more specific information about tissue microstructure, increasing the sensitivity to brain changes and abnormalities.